The relations of UV light and the molecular in the skin

The relations of UV light and the molecular in the skin


The relations of UVlight and the molecular in the skin
How do light damage skin? Light consists of a spectrum of photons which contain energy that vary according to the wavelength. The light interacts on the molecular and then changes their chemical
structure or on the subatomic level by creating free radicals. Otherwise, not only UV light but also green, blue, and violet light can damage cells.

A photon’s energy can be absorbed into the molecule which is then altered. As the absorption of energy, it can also result in electron changes with the generation of free radicals. A free radical is in fact simply an atom with an unpaired electron that starts up a destructive concatenation of chemical reactions. It may end up causing damage in the cell membranes or in the DNA of the cell.
The following are the reaction after exposure to UVB, UVA, and blue light.

The influence of increased free radical activity
DNA strand breaks occur from increased free radical activity. We also produce potent photosensitizers that make us age even more and cause more DNA damage as we age.

The influence of either UVA or UVB
After exposure to either UVB or UVA, melanocyte will excrete melanin to protect skin. Melanin will create heat and absorbs any free radicals at the same time. Vitamin A molecules absorb the energy of photons. Then Vitamin A activity is lost no matter the light is UVA or UVB.

The influence just for UVB
The chromophores for UVB are DNA, urocanic acid, vitamin E, advanced glycation end products and 7-dehydrocholesterol.
DNA cause malfunctioning of cells and important mutations.
Urocanic acid absorbs UVB energy, it becomes cis-urocanic acid. It will promote suppression of the immune system and can promote the development of skin cancer. 
Vitamin E becomes inactivated by absorbing UVB rays. 
Proteins modified by advanced glycation end products can damage DNA. Advanced glycation end products accumulate on long-lived skin proteins such as elastin and collagen as a consequence of glycation. 
Otherwise, 7-dehydrocholesterol, which absorbs UVB energy and is converted to vitamin D in the keratinocytes are the benefit of exposure to light.

The influence just in UVA
UVA damages DNA through free radical action with very small dose.
NADH (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gets altered into an inactive agent by absorbing UVA energy. It is important to the cells of our skin because it is a source of energy.
Glutathione is depleted by UVA and leads to a sensitization to near visible blue light. It is an important antioxidant.

The influence in Blue light
When exposure to UVA, the glutathione is reduced and causes sensitive to blue light. Then Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) absorbs the light and becomes deactivated.

Summary
From above, how to slow the reaction and supply the substances such as Vitamin becomes the popular issues of cosmetic and skin care products.

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