How to make sure the base substances in cosmetic is qualified?


How to make sure the base substances in cosmetic is qualified?

How to make sure the base substances in cosmetic is qualified?
Oil, fat, and wax are the base materials in cosmetic and skin care products. The sources are from plant, animal, mineral, and synthetic products. Animal fats are easy to absorb by skin, but they are not easy to storage. Vegetable oils are wild applied in cosmetics due to miscellaneous sources. The mineral oils are difficult to absorb by skin, but their advantages are price is cheap, better to isolate the skin with outer, and stable to storage. Synthetic products are designed to improve the drawbacks of animal fats and vegetable oils. They may be stable to storage, but they may hurt the skin.
The structure of animal oil and vegetable oil is Triglyceride. The liquid phase is oil, and the solid phase is fat. They can be fatty acid and fatty alcohol after hydrolysis.
There are 3 methods to evaluate the quality of oil, fat, and wax.

Iodine value (IV)
Iodine value is mass of iodine in grams that is consumed by 100 grams of a chemical substance. Iodine value used to determine the amount of unsaturation in fatty acids.
This unsaturation is in the form of double bonds. The higher the iodine number is, the more unstable in the air and high temperature is. That means the substance is easy to change its own property.

Acid value (AV)
Acid value is the mass of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in milligrams that is required to neutralize one gram of chemical substance. The acid number is used to quantify the amount of acid present. The acid content in an alimentary fat or oil is given by the quantity of free fatty acids deriving from the hydrolytic deterioration of the triacylglycerols. 
The acid value is based on the quality will change after the oil are storage for a long time.

Saponification value (SV)
 It is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify 1g of fat under the conditions specified. It is a measure of the average molecular weight (or chain length) of all the fatty acids present.
The acids exist in vegetable oils such as oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, γ-linoleic acid, stearic acid, palmitoletic acid, ricinoleic acid.

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