The characters of surfactant

The characters of surfactant

Decrease the surface tension
The interfacial tension reaches the lowest value at the saturation of CMC (Critical micelle concentration). It also is an indicator to design the suitable surfactants adding in detergents.
It means two different substances are immiscible in the beginning. They will be miscible after adding the third substance. It is called solubilization. For cosmetics and skincare products, they usually add surfactants as the third substance. The spice is immiscible with water, for example. Adding the suitable surfactant in spice and water for solubilization become lotion products.    
The two liquids are immiscible originally. But adding the third substance will let one of the two liquids become 0.2-50u particles separated in the other liquid.
The phenomenon is called emulsification. The mixed liquid is emulsion. And the third substance is called emulsifier. For cosmetics and skincare products, the third substance is surfactant.
How to maintain the stable emulsification is a crucial consideration for cosmetics and skincare products.

The emulsification has two types.
1.      Oil-in-water
Oil more soluble in water
Ex. milk
2.      Water-in-oil
Water more soluble in oil
Ex. butter

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